Stains removal, cleaning.
There isn't, unfortunately, universal agent for removing stains of various origins from any substrate. The properties of the staining substance must be taken into account in the methods of staining, and the properties of the stained material. The least problematic is removing stains from the white substrate, because then there is no fear of destroying the substrate dye. Just make sure, whether the agent used does not damage the substrate. For colored fabrics, "Cure" may turn out to be worse than "disease" – the stain will disappear, but another will appear in her place, clear, after the destroyed dye, and this one is usually irremovable. Therefore, always check, on a piece of identical fabric, action of the agent used before it is used for the extraction.
The methods of removing stains can be divided as follows:
– dissolving the staining agent in a suitable solvent;
– treating the insoluble substance of the stain with agents that facilitate wetting it with water and removing it mechanically, e.g.. by friction. These types of substances are called emulsifiers. These include soap and all synthetic detergents;
– converting the insoluble staining agent into a soluble form and rinsing it out with a suitable solvent. This method is often applied to stains made of various natural and synthetic dyes. The working factor are chemical compounds with reducing properties – sodium sulfite or bisulfite, aqueous solutions of sulfur dioxide and many others. Under their influence, the color stain disappears. However, the resulting colorless soluble compound should be thoroughly rinsed with water. If rinsing was insufficient, the stain will reappear after some time due to the action of oxygen in the air. This method is often used to remove old juice or red wine stains, from white fabrics;
– destruction of the colored substance of the stain by the action of oxidizing agents. This is how hydrogen peroxide and substances that release free chlorine work, e.g.. the so-called. chloride, used to whiten linen after washing. Please note, that a freshly formed stain is much easier to remove than an old one, which often turns out to be impossible to remove. Fruit juice and wine stains are easier to remove, if they were immediately sprinkled with large amounts of table salt. The method of removing stains by rubbing with a cloth or cotton pad is wrong, because it spreads the staining substance over a larger area, and the material itself wears off. Correct treatment It involves tapping the area of the stain with a moistened tampon or sprinkling it over the stain, moistened with a suitable agent, liquid absorbing powder. Talc can be used for this purpose, diatomaceous earth, as a last resort, chalk. Remove the powder after repeating this operation several times, brush off leftovers.
Before removing greasy stains, moisten the area around the stain with water. This will prevent the penetration of fat with the solvent to adjacent areas.
As a rule of thumb it should be taken, that a piece of filter paper or a soft cloth is placed under the stain. This washer must be changed frequently during the process of luring. This is true in all cases, so this hint will not be repeated in individual recipes.